Policy interpretation of the 13th five-year plan for ecological and environmental protection
The bureau of policy briefings (kun kun) On November 15, 2016, the executive meeting of the state council adopted the "13th five-year plan for ecological and environmental protection". On November 18, in 2016 the state council information office held a policy of the state council routine briefing in the morning, vice minister of environmental protection Zhao Yingmin introduction "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" ecological environmental planning and related policies, answering a reporter's question, from the party and the country the construction of ecological civilization and ecological environment protection in the strategic position, the significance of "planning", the main content, basic characteristics, planning and implementation, the implementation of article 10 of "water" the progress of the "ten" atmosphere, the existing main problems and corresponding measures for the policy interpretation.The CPC central committee and the state council have placed ecological civilization in an important strategic position. Since the 18th national congress of the CPC, the CPC central committee and the state council have placed ecological civilization construction and ecological environment protection in a more important strategic position. President xi jinping has repeatedly stressed that green mountain is the golden mountain, protecting the ecological environment like protecting the eyes and treating the ecological environment like life. Premier li keqiang pointed out that it is necessary to step up environmental governance and resolve to get out of an economic development and environmental improvement. "Planning" is the basic basis for the "13th five-year plan" to plan and deploy the national ecological environment protection.Our country introduced the overall scheme of reform of ecological civilization system, implement the action plan for the control of air, water, soil pollution, new "environmental protection" in carrying out activities, with a stiff measures to cope with the challenge of hard and with a true as a change, environmental regulation, unprecedented process accelerates, positive progress was made on the environment quality improvement. In 2015, the first to carry out the monitoring of the 74 cities, is the first implementation of the new environmental air quality standards in 74 cities, the annual concentration of fine particulate matter was 23.6% lower than in 2013, SuanYu District proportion of the total land area by history peak of 30% to 7.6%, the national surface water by the section Ⅰ to Ⅲ class increased to 66%, the proportion of the worse Ⅴ the proportion fell to 9.7%. But it should be noted that China's environmental situation is still grim, environmental pollution, poor quality of environment, ecological damage, environmental risk is high, the ecological environment has a big gap compared with the people's keenly awaited, has become the outstanding short board to build a well-off society in an all-round way. The main content of the plan is divided into three parts.The first part is the national ecological environment protection situation and the guiding ideology, basic principles and main objectives of the work of the 13th five-year plan.The second part mainly elaborates the main content of the plan, which is divided into seven aspects. It is to strengthen the source prevention and control, consolidate the green development foundation; We will deepen quality management and implement three major action plans. We will carry out special governance to comprehensively promote the emission of standard and pollution reduction. Implement the whole process control, effectively prevent and reduce environmental risks; Strengthen protection and strengthen ecological restoration; We will accelerate institutional innovation and actively promote the modernization of governance systems and capabilities. We will implement a number of major projects for environmental protection.The third part is to improve the plan implementation safeguard measure. It includes five aspects, including clear division of responsibilities, increased investment, international cooperation, pilot demonstration and strict assessment. In terms of investment in key projects, we encourage the establishment of a diversified investment pattern, mainly focusing on enterprises and local areas, and the central government should give appropriate support to the principle of division of central and local authority.The overall thinking and goal of the "13th five year" ecological environment protection."Much starker choices-and graver consequences-in" during the overall mentality and goal of ecological environment protection, in order to improve environmental quality as the core, in order to solve the ecological environment, with emphasis on the outstanding problems, to play up the ecological environment short board to be completed and protracted war, and to ensure that realize the goal of ecological environmental quality will improve overall in 2020, for the masses to provide more high quality ecological products.In accordance with the party central committee and the state council decision deployment and the requirements of the relevant laws and environmental protection under the state council in conjunction with the national development and reform commission, the ministry of education, ministry of science and technology, ministry of industry and information technology, ministry of finance, the ministry of land and resources, housing, urban and rural construction ministry, the ministry of transport, ministry of water resources, the ministry of agriculture, quality supervision, inspection and quarantine, forestry bureau and other departments, launched the "planning" since 2013, the preparation work, adopt the mode of open weave planning, online public investigation. Through on-the-spot investigation, workshop and solicit opinions in writing form, solicit opinions of the various aspects, including local governments, departments and some of the opinions of the experts and scholars, carried out several rounds of evaluation, finally formed the "planning".The guiding ideology, basic principles and main objectives of the plan.Guiding ideology, fully implement the party's 18 large and 18 sixth plenary session of 3, 4, 5, spirit, with deng xiaoping theory and "three represents" important thought, the concept of scientific development as guidance, in-depth implementation of xi jinping, general secretary of the series of important speech spirit and the new concept of governing principle politics new thinking strategy, plan as a whole to promote "five one" the overall layout and coordination to promote "comprehensive" four strategic layout, firmly set up and implement the innovation, the coordination, the development of the green, open, sharing ideas, in accordance with the party central committee and the state council decision deployment, in order to improve the environmental quality as the core, to implement the most stringent environmental protection system, Play three big battle for the control of air, water, soil pollution, strengthen ecological protection and restoration, strict risk prevention and control of ecological environment, accelerate the ecological environment governance system and the modernization of management ability, improve the ecological environment management systematic, scientific, under the rule of law, refinement and informatization level, for the masses to provide more high quality ecological products, in order to realize "two one hundred" goal and make contribution to the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The basic principle of "planning" is "five persistence" : stick to green development and treat both symptoms and root causes; Adhere to the core of quality, system administration; Insist on space control and control; We will adhere to reform and innovation and strengthen the rule of law. We will continue to fulfill our duties and fulfill our duties.The main goal of the plan is to improve the overall ecological environment by 2020. Green, low carbon production and way of life level rise, main pollutant emissions cuts, to effectively control environmental risk, loss of biodiversity is the basic control and ecosystem stability obviously increased, the ecological security barrier basic form, the ecological environment governance system and governance ability major progress was made in modernization, ecological civilization construction level with the goal to build a well-off society in an all-round way."Planning" binding and prospective index is put forward, including 12 items, binding forces are above ground level and urban air quality days, concentration of fine particulate matter falls below ground level and above cities, surface water quality at or better than Ⅲ class proportion of water, surface water quality worse Ⅴ the proportion of water, forest, the forest volume, contaminated land safety utilization, pollution, land utilization, as well as the chemical oxygen demand (cod), ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides pollutants emissions. The environmental quality indicators involved are also the binding targets for the first five-year plan. Among the mandatory indicators, the safety utilization rate of contaminated cultivated land and the safe utilization rate of the contaminated land are the requirements of "soil 10", and the remaining 10 are the requirements of the "13th five-year plan" plan.The plan has five basic features.The first is to promote the overall layout and coordination of the "four comprehensive" strategic layout, fully embody and materialize the deployment and requirements of the platform. Highlight green development, strengthen ecological space control, and form a green development layout; We will press ahead with structural reform of the supply side and strengthen hard environmental constraints. Highlight green science and technology innovation to lead, promote green and innovation-driven deep integration; We will highlight the implementation of the country's major strategy, strengthen the coordinated protection of the beijing-tianjin-hebei region and the Yangtze river economic belt, and further promote the green construction of One Belt And One Road.Second, we will make overall efforts to deploy the "13th five year" ecological environment protection as the core of improving environmental quality. "Planning" outstanding environmental quality improved and quantity reduction, ecological protection, the environmental risk prevention and control work of the system such as linkage, will improve the evaluation standard of environmental quality as the key to management objectives and tasks to carry out the regional, watershed, cities and the control unit, the environment quality improvement QingChanShi management.Third, we will implement the reform of the ecological civilization system and implement the strictest environmental protection system. Environmental responsibilities of local party committees, such as inspection of environmental protection inspectors, resource balance sheet preparation, outgoing audit, damage liability investigation, etc. To carry out the corporate principal responsibility in terms of emission permits, environmental law enforcement and damages; To strengthen market incentive and restraint mechanism and market subject cultivation, such as resource and environmental property right, tax policy guidance, resource and environmental price reform, green finance, etc. We will reform the basic system of environmental governance to accelerate the formation of a governance system of government, enterprises and the public.The fourth is to insist that "the lake is a community of life", strengthening ecological protection and restoration. "Planning" to increase the discussed puts forward key tasks and key projects ecological protection and restoration, protection and restoration of clear environmental and ecological coordination, advancing system important ecosystem protection and restoration, expand the supply of ecological products, improve the ecological system stability and the service function.Fifth, we will strengthen comprehensive governance, and work together to advance industrial standards, curb pollution, reduce pollution and prevent risks. To fully satisfy the plans to cut pollution and communities in stock, in order to promote implementation of pollution reduction, and communities in backbone engineering for tradable permits and implement the responsibilities for pollution abatement, and communities to heavy metal, hazardous waste, chemical, nuclear and radiation and other key industries for the gripper based ability, improve the risk prevention and control system construction process, a multi-level risk prevention system. The implementation of the plan will focus on five major tasks.One is to promote the plan. To the "planning" general requirements, goals, tasks and policy measures, carry out publicity and interpretation, answering questions, clarify the central decision-making to deploy that speak understand, mobilize social forces to participate in the ecological environmental protection work.Second, clear tasks and division of labor. We divided the key tasks of the plan, defined the responsibilities of the department, decomposed the binding targets, and coordinated the implementation of the plan.Third, we will implement major projects and reform measures. We will set up a project bank, strengthen the project propulsion mechanism, and actively promote the implementation of major reform policies as soon as possible.Fourth, we will vigorously promote social governance. We will improve the social supervision mechanism, open up channels for public supervision, and actively organize the mass participation and supervision of the implementation of the plan.Fifth, carry out appraisal and appraisal. Regular monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the plan. By the end of 2018, the mid-term assessment will be conducted, and the final assessment will be conducted by the end of 2020. The assessment results will be reported to the state council, which will be released to the public and will be included in the comprehensive assessment and evaluation system of leading cadres.Overall environmental air quality improved.Recent weather in Beijing is not very good, heavy pollution is frequent, environmental protection situation is still serious. First of all, we should have firm confidence in dealing with heavy pollution. Since the implementation of air 10 in 2013, overall environmental air quality has improved. As far as the country is concerned, the frequency and peak of heavy pollution are falling. Monitoring data show that the first implementation of the new environmental air quality standards in 74 cities, heavy pollution days ratio accounted for 4.1% in 2015, the figure was 52.3% lower than in 2013, that is to say, the 2015 national heavy pollution days was 52.3% lower than in 2013. In 2015, the beijing-tianjin-hebei region dropped 51.7% from 2013. This number fully demonstrates that the current direction of air pollution control is correct, the measures are powerful and the results are significant. To further strengthen our confidence, we will unswervingly continue to carry out the implementation of all measures of the "air 10", and as long as we persevere, the quality of our environment will improve day by day.In see results at the same time, also should see the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution in our country at present is still faced with urgency, long-term and difficulty, need to overall consideration of the current and long-term need to improve the environment quality, both to play tough, but also lay a protracted war. To play at all, is to deal with heavy pollution weather as the priority, especially in the northern winter prevention and control of atmospheric pollution to use the shortest possible time to solve people's "heart and lung of".It will highlight three aspects of the work.One is to reduce the pollution load, vigorously promotes the industrial pollution control, the implementation of winter disease summer treat, but also for peak production, promote clean utilization of coal, speed up eliminating polluting vehicles, a strict environmental law enforcement supervision, reduce the emissions of pollutants. This is the fundamental solution to heavy pollution. Although the occurrence of heavy pollution weather have adverse weather diffusion conditions of objective factors, but the total number of the root cause is still the discharge of pollutants is too big, far more than the environment can be accepted, this will happen.2 it is to improve the heavy pollution weather system, strive to improve prediction ability, and improve the accuracy of air quality forecast, take measures in advance, to further increase the intensity of emergency measures to reduce emissions, strengthen supervision and inspection, to ensure that the measures implemented. In addition, to realize regional emergency linkage, the minimum economic and social costs and the maximization of environmental benefits should be achieved to effectively reduce the impact of heavy pollution on public health.The third is to play a long game. In beijing-tianjin-hebei, for example, in and around beijing-tianjin-hebei coal consumption accounted for about half the country, steel production and coking capacity were also accounted for over 50%, thermal power installed capacity of 35% of the country, so a lot of energy consumption caused by large pollutant total amount in this area. Therefore, we must implement the collaborative development strategy of the beijing-tianjin-hebei region, put forward by the central Beijing further organization of core function in the capital, speed up the regional industry and energy structural adjustment, strengthen the management of pollution sources and control, in the whole society to establish green low carbon way of life. Air pollution control is a complex system project and cannot be achieved overnight. Under the joint efforts of all levels of government and enterprises, including the whole society, the heavy pollution will be less. Accurate diagnosis and management of heavy pollution in different cities.Domestically, the causes of heavy pollution in different cities vary. Generally speaking, China is a coal - based energy structure, but some large cities, motor vehicle pollution accounts for a considerable proportion. Some industrial cities with relatively heavy industries are more likely to be industrial emitters. Therefore, the causes of haze in different places are not exactly the same.In view of this situation, the 13th five-year plan clearly stated that to improve the environmental quality is the core, in fact, it is to be precise. The ministry of environmental protection has also increased its investment in this area. Since 2015, all cities and cities in the country have achieved real-time monitoring of six pollutants in the new environmental air quality standards. The ability of ascension, combined with scientific research strength, the cause of pollution to the local implementation of accurate diagnosis, the resulting precision management, so can achieve accuracy and malicious, with minimal economic cost can be implemented in the biggest environmental benefits.The central environmental protection inspector is a means of implementing "party and government accountability and responsibility."The central government has a series of arrangements for the implementation of the responsibilities of governments at all levels. The first batch of central environmental protection inspectors is giving feedback, which is a very important means to implement the environmental protection "party and government responsibility" and "double responsibility" of party committees at all levels. In addition, there is a comprehensive inspection of environmental protection, as well as a special inspection on heavily polluted weather this winter, to discuss some of the local governments that have failed to fulfill their duties. In short, the implementation of the "atmospheric ten" and the relevant requirements of the central ecological civilization construction should be implemented to realize the improvement of environmental quality.Great progress was made in the implementation of the "water 10" release.The "water 10" was released in 2015, and this year is the first year of implementation and has made great progress. There have been six major developments in the past year:One is according to the requirements of article 10 of "water", the ministry of environmental protection and 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities) signed on water pollution prevention and control of the target responsibility, the requests to improve the quality of article 10 of "water" task disassembling in the provinces, also calls for disassembling to various cities and provinces, and eventually to implement the national 1940 control unit, each unit of each environmental quality has specific requirements. At the same time, the ministry of environmental protection has also established a national water pollution prevention and control mechanism, which has promoted the establishment of a joint mechanism for the prevention and control of water pollution in the beijing-tianjin-hebei region, Yangtze river delta and the pearl river delta.Second, the organization has prepared a plan for the prevention and control of water pollution in key river basins, preventing and controlling water pollution throughout the whole process, promoting the conservation and recycling of water resources, and strengthening ecological protection and restoration.The third is to investigate and assess the environmental protection of more than 900 centralized drinking water sources in cities and above, and guide the development of standardized construction of drinking water sources. This includes the delineation of the drinking water source protection area, and the illegal construction and sewage disposal in the protected areas according to law.Fourthly, according to the requirements of water quality improvement, the targets and requirements for reducing the emission reduction of key water pollutants in the 13th five-year plan and 2016 are decomposed.Five is the implementation of the "water ten" established in 2020 to add to complete the task of comprehensive environmental control in 130000 incorporated villages, the implementation of 2016 central rural funds for energy conservation and emissions reduction, continue to support efforts to develop the comprehensive improvement of the rural environment.Sixth, it issued a series of relevant technical documents to guide the implementation of the "water 10", including the technical guide for the preparation of water quality standards, as well as a series of other technical documents.Just now, 1 - in September this year the country has a monitoring data of 1922 monitoring sections, more than 1351 water quality is Ⅲ class, accounted for 70.3%, year-on-year increase of 4.0%. At the same time should also see, 166 is a worse Ⅴ, accounted for 8.6% of the total, down 1.2% year on year. This year, as the first full year of implementation of the "water 10" implementation, it has made a good start, and the annual goal set by the "water 10" is expected to be completed on the whole. Main problems and measures of water pollution prevention and control.Water pollution prevention and control, although said that through the efforts of the "twelfth five-year", continue to improve water environment quality, but compared with the people's growing demand for environmental, there is still a big gap. Water pollution prevention and control work is not balanced, the phenomenon of river basin ecological damage is also common, non-point source pollution, it should be said now has not been effectively, part of the tributaries of the severe pollution of lake eutrophication problem is outstanding, the water environment carrying capacity has reached or close to the ceiling, many rivers flowing through the town, "black smelly" problem is outstanding, the masses feel strongly about.The national water environment presents three characteristics: first, the surface water quality is generally stable, but some water pollution problems are prominent. Second, the situation of good water protection is grim. The third is the differentiation of major pollution factors. In the past, there has been a decline in COD in the "12th five year" binding target, but nitrogen and phosphorus are at the same time. Since chemical oxygen demand has decreased a lot, the pollutants that are in the second and third place gradually become the prominent pollution problems in some waters. This is the current national water environment presents three characteristics.The 13th five-year plan clearly sets out the goals for 2020 and the overall thinking. The next step will be to adhere to the improvement of water environment quality as the core, to implement the "water 10" as the grasp, earnestly implement the "13th five-year plan" clear tasks. The first is to stick to the problem orientation and solve the problem of water pollution, which is the most concerned and reflected by the people. "1+2" work focus. "1" is for the safety of drinking water. "2" from the good water and bad water grab at both ends, the so-called good water is not polluted Ⅲ class above water now, also want to strengthen protection; Poor water is known as "black smelly" water, water, worse Ⅴ will take governance. The second is to do a good source of prevention, strictly observe the total space access red line. Third, highlight key areas and strengthen governance measures. Fourth, innovate management mode and improve water environment quality management ability. Fifth, we will strictly implement local and corporate responsibilities.Environmental protection department is confident that under the joint efforts of the whole society, our country's water environment quality will be better and better, have the confidence to accomplish the article 10 of "water" and the "planning" clear water environmental management and improve the task.The plan will combine water resources, water environment and water ecology.From the national water environment quality change trend to see, is improving year by year. It should be said that there is a lot of concrete pollution control work behind the improvement of environmental quality. In the past five years, the chemical oxygen demand (cod), ammonia nitrogen emissions fell by 12.9% and 12.9%, the new towns, the daily sewage treatment capacity of 57 million tons, now of the urban sewage treatment capacity of 182 million tons, has become one of the largest country in the sewage treatment capacity all over the world. There is still a lot of work to be done, and it should be said that these concrete work supports the overall quality of water environment in China, although the situation is still serious. The inspector found that there were indeed some areas where there was a deterioration of the water quality, and the overall improvement of the whole country was not inconsistent with the local deterioration.The "planning" is very clear, water to emphasize environmental protection of water resources, water environment and water ecology, 3 person treats to comprehensive consideration, comprehensive, the implementation of the "ShanShuiLinTian lake is a community of life". In fact, water pollution control is on the water, but many problems still come from onshore, so the water and land must be integrated into a whole system. Environmental management is going according to the objective rule of river basin management, detailed management, so as to implement the "much starker choices-and graver consequences-in planning requirements, to achieve water resources, water environment and water ecology protection.The quality of atmospheric environment has achieved positive results.In the three years since the implementation of the "air 10", under the strong leadership of the CPC central committee and the state council, all regions and departments have made concerted efforts and should say that they have achieved positive results. From the data change of environmental quality:First, the concentration of particulate matter in the country has decreased significantly. In 2015, the concentration of PM10 in the 338 prefecture-level cities nationwide decreased by 9.3% compared with 2013. The average concentration of PM2.5 in the beijing-tianjin-hebei region, Yangtze river delta and the pearl river delta decreased by 27.4%, 20.9% and 27.7% in 2015 compared with 2013. In the first 10 months of this year, the concentration of PM10 in 338 cities and above was down 9.4% from the same period last year. The average concentration of PM2.5 in the beijing-tianjin-hebei region, the Yangtze river delta and the pearl river delta decreased by 14.5%, 14% and 14.7% over the same period last year. Last year, PM2.5 in the pearl river delta reached the standard. The first of the three key regions was the first to realize the annual mean of PM2.5 below 35, which set up confidence for the governance work.Second, the number of good days has increased significantly. In the first 10 months of this year, 81.4 percent of the 338 prefecture-level and above cities had excellent days, up 3.6 percentage points from the same period last year.Third, the number of heavy pollution days decreased significantly. So far this year, the number of heavy pollution days is still decreasing compared with the same period last year. Three years of breakthroughs have been made in the implementation of the "air 10".From the work of air pollution control, through the three years' implementation of "atmospheric ten", breakthrough progress has been made in some difficult issues and long-term work.First, we will actively reduce the production capacity of steel and coal. The total amount of coal consumption in key areas has been negative for years since 2013.Second, air pollution control in key industries has achieved remarkable results. The total installed capacity of desulfurization and denitrification units in China has been increased to 99% and 96%, and the transformation of coal power ultra-low emission is about 290 million kilowatts, accounting for 32% of the total coal power installed in China. Power plant coal consumption is approaching or reaching the world advanced level.Third, the prevention and control of vehicle pollution has been gradually strengthened. Over the past three years, we have eliminated more than 15 million yellow standard cars and old cars, and fully supplied China's four-car gasoline and diesel fuel, and the 11 provinces and cities in the east have five vehicles with gas diesel.Fourth, regional cooperation mechanisms have been gradually improved. Beijing-tianjin-hebei, and the surrounding region, Yangtze river delta, the pearl river delta regional collaboration further for the control of air pollution, the successful completion of a number of major events air quality assurance task, governments at all levels in the area of joint response to heavy pollution weather mechanism is gradually mature.Fifth, various supporting policies and measures are being improved. All of the 22 policy measures and 25 key industry emission standards set out in the "atmospheric 10" are enacted and implemented.Sixth, the regulatory capacity of environmental monitoring is growing. More than 338 local and national city had all the six indicators such as PM2.5 monitoring ability, establish and improve the air quality forecast warning system, in some major cities in the atmospheric particulate matter pollution source analysis, the source emission list compiled pilot work.The environmental situation is grim and arduous.On the whole, through the efforts of the whole society, the progress of the "atmospheric ten" is smooth. It is expected to achieve the goal of "air 10" in 2017. Although "ten" atmosphere made phased achievements for three years, but China's current stage of economic and social development, industrial structure, energy structure is difficult to a fundamental shift in the short term, so the air pollutants emissions remain high for a long time, the environmental situation is still grim. Now the national atmospheric environment quality has three characteristics:First, the overall air quality in China has been improving, but the pollution level is still at a high level.Second, particulate matter is the main pollution factor, mainly PM2.5 and PM10, but the problem of ozone pollution cannot be ignored.Third, regional imbalance. On the one hand, the pearl river delta region has achieved the standard of PM2.5, but also some cities have not decreased. An important element of environmental inspectors is the explicit requirement for the failure of individual districts to reverse the rise.Our country is in a traditional MeiYanXing pollution and ozone and fine particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, such as pollution of the old and new problems, the production and life, urban and rural, industrial, and transportation environment pollution mixed phase, coupled with some local environmental responsibility is not implemented, the law enforcement regulation is lax, such problems as insufficient environmental capacity at the grass-roots level, so the situation of the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution is still severe, the task is arduous, improve the atmospheric environment quality also need to the whole society common hard and long-term unremitting efforts.